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HPV Vaccine to Prevent the Cervical Cancer
Dr. Sharda Jain
Dr. Rashmi Jain
VACCINATION IS “IDEALGIFT”
Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer in young women (15-44 years) in India Early diagnosis is key to successful treatment. Cancer cervix is preceded by precancerous cervical lesions, namely CIN1, CIN2, CIN3. This can be picked up by routine cervical screening. In India the incidence of cervical cancer fell by 42%-35% i.e. marginally as we have no cervical cancer screening policy.
Clinical studies have shown that in 99.7% of cases, cervical cancer is caused by Human Papilloma Virus which can also cause genital warts and is sexually transmitted. Most HPV infection will regress after 6-12 months. If this persists, it can cause cervical cancer and other HPV related diseases. 80% of sexually active women will be exposed to the HPV infection in their lives.
Types 16-18 also known as oncogenic virus account of 95% of cervical cancer in India. Non-oncogenic virus 6, 11 account for 90% of genital warts.
THESE LESIONS CAN BE PREVENTED BY HPV VACCINE. There are two types available Bivalent Vaccine against 16, 18 subtypes (GSK). Quadrivalent Vaccine prevents cervical cancer and also genital warts (16, 18, 6, 11) (MERCK).
The vaccines do not have virus DNA but virus-like particles and hence not infectous. Three injections are necessary in 6 months. 99.5% Seroconversion has been detected for Indians, an immunization programme is started by Gynaecologists, Pediatricians and GSK and Merch Company in 2009. Government has yet to include it in national immunization programme.
This is for young girls at school before they become sexually active with the hope to prevent cervical cancer. However, GSK vaccine can be taken upto age 46 years by married people with single partner.It is important to note that this vaccine does not replace the need for cervical screening which is very highly recommended.